Boring Infrastructure

Jessie Frazelle

Jessie Frazelle

For the past six months, we have been building out KittyCAD's backend infrastructure. All of this has been done in any "free" time I have, so it's a bit "here and there" as to how things get done. My goal when building out infrastructure is always to make it as "boring" as possible. Let me expand on what I mean by boring:

  • Minimal complexity
  • Any third-party infrastructure we use should abide by the "do one thing and one thing only" rule (of course, in practice, this is a bit more nuanced than that but you get the idea).
  • Resilience: while third parties might claim certain guarantees, we should always act like the guarantee is false and account for it.
  • "Murphy's law of computering" 1: Anything that can happen will happen, and you should try to anticipate that and fix things once they arise so they never happen again.

At its heart, KittyCAD is an infrastructure company. But we are different than any existing infrastructure company in that we build infrastructure for hardware teams. In building the product, we started with a feature for file conversions. This seemed ideal since it would allow us to test our back-end infrastructure for the future, and file conversions will always be the input and output point for our product. We knew our infrastructure had to scale, be consistent, fast, and resilient so users would trust us. Let's dive in a bit into the story behind our infrastructure.

C++ < == > Rust

When we first launched the API for file conversions, the server powering the API was written in C++. This was because most graphics engineers know and use C++, and it would allow us to move the fastest. NVIDIA also has a full SDK with C++ bindings, and while there are projects focused on wrapping those bindings in other languages, they would likely be foreign to the folks we hire. There's also not a good way of knowing if anyone is using said wrappers in production or not.

This was my first C++ project other than fixing bugs in existing projects, but I had an open mind and was excited to get the job done.

After scoping out the C++ server frameworks, I chose the most minimal one that would be easy to patch if we ever needed to. We shipped the API and had people start using it. However, I did not have peace of mind. As someone who has built services in mainly Rust and Go for production, I just felt like I didn't understand how things could fail in production for C++. These unknown unknowns were the primary source of my unease.

The way we deployed the service was with terraform creating auto-scaling groups of VMs with GPUs and a load-balancer. This was fine, but I knew a lot could go wrong on deployments of new versions, but at least the health checks would catch it and not start routing traffic there.

The API worked, and there were minimal issues, but I still couldn't get over the fact I knew I could have done this better in another language. I decided to re-write the server in another C++ server framework that had better OpenAPI support, improved JSON support for types, and seemed to solve some problems we were facing. Sadly, this did not squash my qualms, but it worked great!

I couldn't help but yearn for the JSON operations of Golang or serde in Rust. Both of them feel much more like first-class citizens. I also missed diesel in Rust for its strong typing of objects in the database and queries. And I wanted any error handling that did not involve try catch. Our current code base seemed like any new dev hired would have to learn how not to do things before they could do things.

Splitting the monolith

I decided to split our monolith API server into two services. The external-facing API server would be written in Rust. For any operations that required our "engine" (the C++ code), the Rust server would call out to another service that would run on our internal network. This internal service would still use the C++ server code. If we need to debug things on our internal network locally, all VMs are hooked up to Tailscale. I often think about how if we were using OpenVPN, I'd have murdered someone by now. Getting on the VPN is seamless for any new person who joins the company.

The nice thing about this split is it had lots of wins:

  1. We could host the external-facing API server on VMs without GPUs, which allows for much more economical scaling.
  2. Any API calls outside the "engine" scope, like database calls for information about users and other operations, could be removed from the C++ code and only live in the Rust code.
  3. Having the Rust server be the thing user's hit right off the bat honestly did make me have better peace of mind since I have more experience hosting Rust services. I know what to expect and can build for it.
  4. I could deploy the external-facing API server to GCP's cloud-run. It was much less managed by me while still being able to scale and be deployed on pushes to main via git. I like to joke that what I love about cloud-run is that it's someone else's bash scripts behind the scenes (not mine).

At this point, the C++ server code was a lot smaller. Now, I was more content, but not fully content.

C++ Rust interop

I started researching some C++ interops for Rust so that we could keep the GPU-oriented code in C++ but have the server code in Rust. However, I worried any interop I found would lead to me not having peace of mind at the interop layer of the stack versus the C++ server layer of the stack.

Eventually, I found David Tolnay's cxx for Rust. It appeared to be the piece of the puzzle for which I was looking! If you are a Rust dev, you likely realize you already use so many of David Tolnay's libraries, so I know I could trust it! (Thank you, David!) I set myself up for this being something that would be hard to get working, but it worked right away (another great sign)! I was excited! Finally, I might be able to go back to using derive macros, serde, AND diesel!

I decided to start by creating a Rust library that wrapped the C++ code. Then I could import that library into a Rust service that would replace the "engine" API server. This is the same model as openssl-sys and other Rust libraries that bind to C code.

Because of the C++ bindings, we were already using a custom Rust build script for the Rust library, so I decided to remove CMakeLists.txt entirely from our build and write a little package manager for our C++ dependencies in Rust. We still need some hacks for replacing what we were getting from clang-tidy and generating C++ docs with doxygen, but overall I am happy with it. Much more comfortable than with CMakeLists.txt. We also get all the benefits of pinning dependencies to specific versions and compiling from source, so we know everything works the same way everywhere.

Now, any new dev to the project could run cargo build and cargo test (since we ended up wrapping any C++ tests as well). This was much more developer-friendly than cmake.

Soon, this was running in production, and I could finally have peace of mind. This was my definition of "boring" since I have much more experience in the "stack" we were using. Now we had Rust services talking to Rust services, and I felt at home. I could, finally, implement my plans for caching API responses and using a pub/sub service to communicate various asynchronous tasks between services.


For quite some time, I had been looking at for the pub/sub layer. I talked to several people who had used it in production and I only heard good things. Additionally, most folks mentioned that what they loved the most is nats is upfront about not guaranteeing anything. I also appreciate this because even if I had used kafka, rabbitmq, or criss-cross-applesauce2, I would have built my integration with the idea in mind that there was no guarantee, because that's how you get "boring infrastructure" and some peace of mind.


For the cache, I chose Redis since it's a bit of an old faithful for me, but you might feel otherwise. And at the end of the day, if there's a failure in the cache, you just run whatever you'd have done without it.

It's worth mentioning that both Cache and Pub/Sub are implemented as traits in Rust for our services. Such that, if we decide to replace Redis or with something else in the future, we would just need to implement the trait for it.

Infra v2

For the first iteration of deploying Redis and nats, I used terraform and deployed them as containers on VMs. But I knew this would not last long. I eventually wanted to have some way of running containers for various services but I needed it to fulfill the following requirements (that we were already fulfilling today):

  1. Be as "boring" as possible.
  2. We deploy changes to the services like our API servers via something that runs on pushes to the main branch in git.
  3. I didn't want to manage a Kubernetes cluster (this is a much more nuanced conversation, but it relates to #1)
  4. Whatever we used needed to understand the concept of "X workload requires GPUs" and "Y workload does not", so we could keep costs down to a minimum.
  5. Have a concept of "Blue/Green deploys", "deploy rollouts", whatever you want to call it.
  6. I can't spend all my time (or even 10% of it) fixing this thing. It needs to work and have very little maintenance. As little maintenance as cloud-run, which is 0.
  7. Make it easier to use all our cloud credits across various cloud providers.

After scoping out lots of options, I chose nomad. I could also use waypoint from Hashicorp for deploying on pushes to main with a GitHub action. I went about setting all this up with terraform so we could easily re-create it if we wanted to.

After getting the cluster stood up, I hooked up our GitHub actions for deploys, and we were set! This felt much cleaner and would be less context for any new devs that join to understand how things get deployed. Previously, as mentioned, some services were in cloud-run, some were in VMs, and now everything went through the same path.

While cloud-run can scale with you, it becomes less economical at a certain point. The new infrastructure positions us better for the future economically3. Additionally, now all services run in containers versus some installed on VMs directly. It ended up cleaning up a lot about how we deploy services, and adding new services will be even easier now.

Technically speaking, we could deploy all our infrastructure to this cluster now. Except that's not true. We have one Golang service that runs arbitrary code execution that we will have another blog post about once the features are launched. This service is not connected to our internal network and is heavily isolated from any other production infrastructure. This service spins up docker containers on the fly, so it runs on VMs in an auto-scaling group. The VMs get updated on pushes to main (but only when the health checks succeed).

I digress; the reasons for that separation will always make sense, and so we will have additional infrastructure outside the scope of the central cluster.

That sums up our infrastructure; I am sure there is a lot I am forgetting. If you found this interesting and agree with our methodology of doing things please apply. We are looking to hire the first engineer (other than myself) to be working on this! There's a lot to do, and we have a suitable base to build on top of!

Our infrastructure will probably evolve in various ways in the future, nothing is ever perfect, so stay tuned for more posts!


  1. I made this up, but anyone who has been programming for a time knows it's true.

  2. I made this one up, just making sure you are paying attention. ;)

  3. It's also important to note we had turned off cold starts on cloud-run for various reasons and so the cost is much higher because of that. I still stand-by using cloud-run for bots or anything like that, since it's so easy and not managed by you.